International Journal of Chemistry Research 2023-04-01T00:00:00+00:00 Editor [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Chemistry Research (IJCR) is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. It publishes Research Articles, Short communications and Review Articles in all areas of chemistry.</p> <p>Authors can submit complete unpublished and original works, which are not under review in any other journals. The scopes of the journal include, applied chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, structural chemistry, polymer chemistry, nuclear chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental chemistry, medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry.</p> <p><strong>Indexing and Abstracting-</strong>&nbsp;OAI, LOCKKS, Google Scholar, OCLC (World Digital Collection Gateway), UIUC</p> HEAVY CADMIUM METAL DETERMINATION CONCENTRATION IN CHEESE 2023-02-21T07:05:29+00:00 RUAA R. MUNEAM [email protected] ALI ABID ABOJASSIM [email protected] GHADEER HAKIM JAAFAR KATHEM [email protected] <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The purpose of this study was to look into the concentration of the heavy element Cadmium and its health risks in cheese samples available in Iraqi markets. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>72 random samples of six country groups (15 Iran, 9 Iraq, 9 Egypt, 15 Turkey, 15 Hungary, and 9 Saudi Arabia) available in Iraqi markets were collected and analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Shimadzu model AA7000, USA.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The highest average Cd metal level in the samples was found in Iranian cheese, while the lowest was in Iraqi ones. The descending Cd order of the countries was Turkey&gt;Hungary&gt;Egypt&gt;Iran&gt;Saudi Arabia&gt;Iraq, according to the T-test confirmation. The daily Cd metal intake ( ), Cd target hazard quotient ( ), and Cd carcinogenic risk ( ) values were less than the permissible and risk values.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Eventually, the health risk parameters revealed that there are no pose risks from those cheeses to Iraqi consumers.</p> 2023-04-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RUAA R. MUNEAM, ALI ABID ABOJASSIM, GHADEER HAKIM JAAFAR KATHEM GC-MS PROFILE, SYNTHESIS AND SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FLAVONOID-METAL (CADMIUM, COBALT, COPPER, NICKEL) COMPLEXES OF JATROPHA CURCUS LEAVES 2023-02-21T07:34:42+00:00 EDEWOR THERESA IBIBIA [email protected] BANKOLE T. A. [email protected] OGUNJIMI D. V. [email protected] MMUO A. I. [email protected] AMUDA M. O. [email protected] <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main aim of this research is to determine the optimum conditions required for the synthesis of metal-flavonoid complexes from leaves of <em>J</em><em>atropha curcus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction. Phytochemical screening was carried out using the method described by Harborne. The phytochemical profile of the extract was determined using GC-MS. The flavonoid-metal complexes were synthesized using different transition metal salts and the methanolic plant leaves extract. The synthesis was carried out by varying the pH, metal ion and extract concentrations. The solubility of the flavonoid-metal complexes in different solvents was determined. The synthesized complexes were subjected to UV-visible and FTIR analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Methanol extract gave a yield of 4. 88%. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 14 compounds. Maximum dry weights of complexes formed between 600-700 mg were obtained at a concentration of 1000 ppm crude extract and for the metal ion concentrations, the optimum concentration observed for Cd<sup>2+</sup>and Cu<sup>2+</sup>complexes was 120 ppm while that of Ni<sup>2+</sup>and Co<sup>2+</sup>complexes was 140 ppm. Most suitable pH for copper-flavonoid was 8, for cobalt-and cadmium-flavonoid complexes was 9 and pH of 10 for nickel-flavonoid complexes. The FTIR results showed the formation of the complex due to the shift observed in the band assigned to C=O The UV/visible spectrum showed absorbance in the wavelength range of 250-480 nm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Flavonoid-metal complexes were synthesized and their optimum conditions determine.</p> 2023-04-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EDEWOR THERESA IBIBIA, BANKOLE T. A., OGUNJIMI D. V., MMUO A. I., AMUDA M. O. TOTAL PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF THE METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF PARINARI CURATELLIFOLIA PLANCH. EX BENTH 2023-02-21T07:41:15+00:00 EDEWOR THERESA IBIBIA [email protected] AGBOOLA PETER OBALOLUWA [email protected] AMUDA MUTIU OLASUNKANMI [email protected] MMUO AGATHA IJEOMA [email protected] OWA STEPHEN OLUGBEMIGA [email protected] <p><strong>Objective</strong>: <em>Parinari curatellifolia</em> is a medicinal plant that possesses multifunctional properties. The aim of this research was to evaluate the mineral, total phenolic and flavonoids contents and some biological parameters of the methanolic leaf extract.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The leaves were extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extract. Phytochemical screening was carried out using the method described by Harborne, 1999. The extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis, Aluminum colorimetric assay was used to determine the total flavonoid content while Folin-Ciocalteau reagent was used to evaluate the total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The mineral content was determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Disc diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides, while steroids, anthraquinones and cyano glycosides were absent. The GC-MS profile showed catechol as the most abundant phytochemical and the identified phytocomponents were mainly polyphenolics, carbonyls, fatty acids and fatty acid esters. The extract possesses total flavonoid and phenolic contents of 13.46±0.02 mg/g quercetin equivalent and 58.43±0.15 mg/g Gallic acid equivalent, respectively. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant of 84%. Concentration of the macro and micro elements were quite high in some cases. Na had the highest concentration of 42522.70±2146.50 µg/g, while Cu has the lowest value of 4.18±0.03µg/g. The antibacterial activity of the extract was comparable to that of the standard antibiotic. <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> exhibited the highest zone of inhibition of 29±0.10 mm while<em> Salmonella typii</em> and <em>Kliebsiella pneumoniae</em> gave the lowest value of 14±0.12 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Parinari curatellifolia</em> leaves possess tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. It has high antioxidant and antibacterial capabilities.</p> 2023-04-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EDEWOR THERESA IBIBIA, AGBOOLA PETER OBALOLUWA, AMUDA MUTIU OLASUNKANMI, MMUO AGATHA IJEOMA, OWA STEPHEN OLUGBEMIGA